math http://www.wisebread.com/taxonomy/term/1174/all en-US 9 Skills That Will Be Obsolete Soon http://www.wisebread.com/9-skills-that-will-be-obsolete-soon <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/9-skills-that-will-be-obsolete-soon" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/women_reading_map_000020985087.jpg" alt="Women using skill that will soon become obsolete" title="" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="140" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p>As technology evolves, certain careers are replaced with new ones. For instance, children used to be employed as pinsetters in bowling alleys; the automated pin-setting machine made that job vanish pretty quickly. Before alarm clocks, &quot;knocker uppers&quot; would walk the streets tapping on windows to get people out of bed. And at night, lamplighters would walk around igniting gas-fueled street lamps.</p> <p>But beyond jobs, certain <em>skills</em> also get replaced as technology moves ever forward. So what are some modern skills that will <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/11-life-skills-that-are-now-completely-obsolete">soon be rendered obsolete</a>? Here are nine that are quickly becoming extinct.</p> <h2>1. A Sense of Direction</h2> <p>Two words &mdash; Google Maps. You may be able to navigate around your city like a cab driver around the streets of London, but who cares? With the maps app on your phone, you can get to anywhere you want. There are no wrong turns, no dead ends, and no traffic delays. Everything is synced up to GPS, and you can be a complete newbie to the town or city you're in, and still get where you're going like you've lived there for 50 years. This is great news for people like me, who continue to get lost on the way to work.</p> <h2>2. Parallel Parking</h2> <p>Some people are really good at it. Most of us are okay. Some are terrible. You may be one of those people that brags about your parallel parking skills, but soon you'll be impressing no one. Many higher-end vehicles already come with park assist, but as technology gets less expensive, it migrates to other cars, and is currently available as an option on the Toyota Prius and the Ford Focus. Yes&hellip; the Ford Focus. Give it a few years, and every car will be a perfect parallel parker. And driving itself, when that gets replaced by driverless cars, could also become a skill of the past.</p> <h2>3. Flirting</h2> <p>Really!? Well, perhaps not entirely. There will always be the need to do the dance, using body language, eye contact, all of that. But these days, online dating apps like Tinder, OK Cupid, Plenty Of Fish, and many more, are taking a lot of the hard work out of meeting people in bars and clubs. After all, why risk the rejection when you have a guaranteed date waiting? And not only that, but a date you know a whole lot about, including likes, dislikes, pets, and anything else you want to look up. There are guidebooks out there telling guys how to pick up women, and they are starting to lose their appeal. Quickly.</p> <h2>4. Cursive Writing</h2> <p>Although it is still being taught in schools, cursive writing is rarely used outside of the classroom. Think about it&hellip; when was the last time you wrote anything in cursive? In fact, when was the last time you wrote anything by hand, other than a quick shopping list or note letting someone know you'd be back in 10 minutes? Technology has eliminated the need for cursive writing; we use a keyboard for almost everything, and not just reports, emails, and other documents. From online diaries and blogs, to notepads on smartphones and tablets, keyboards are making cursive go the way of the dodo.</p> <h2>5. Mental Arithmetic</h2> <p>So, this is not discounting the work of mathematicians and scientists; those skills will always be needed by society. However, for most of us, the ability to do calculations in our heads is quickly becoming a task we'd much rather do on our phones. We have this computer on us almost everywhere we go, so why bother crunching the numbers ourselves when a calculator app can do it in half the time, and with certainty? Lazy it may be, but we always take the path of least resistance.</p> <h2>6. Memorization</h2> <p>As with mental arithmetic, having a great memory (which is a learnable skill, by the way) is also becoming obsolete thanks to smartphones. It is very rare to be with a bunch of friends and have that &quot;Oh&hellip; what was the name of that actor who was in that movie?&quot; kinda question get answered with a chorus of &quot;Hang on, I know this one.&quot; Instead, we pull it up on IMDB. The same goes for anything that requires looking into the archives of our minds, from phone numbers and addresses, to recipes and birthdays. It's all available to us at the touch of a button.</p> <h2>7. Spelling</h2> <p>Pretty soon, the only use for being an excellent speller will be to win a spelling bee. It doesn't matter if you cannot spell even the simplest words, your phones and computers have spell checking built into almost everything you use. It's not just in Microsoft Word, but emails, messaging apps, and even design programs. Just look for the little red wavy line, and voila, click to correct. You may be able to spell floccinaucinihilipilification after seven pints of foaming ale, but it's not going to be a skill you need in everyday life.</p> <h2>8. Physical Networking</h2> <p>Remember the days when you had to attend functions, meeting people in your field in order to increase your circle of business colleagues? Well, these days you can do it all over the Internet. Sites like LinkedIn, Monster, Indeed and many others are making it very easy to reach out and find new jobs, or careers. And if you need to hire a professional, you've got millions of people just a click away. There will always be company functions, but that handshake, smile, and charm won't be needed anymore. You can do it all while you're sitting at your desk, or at home while you're watching the game.</p> <h2>9. Filing Hard Copies</h2> <p>There was a real art to filing information, and if you were good at it, you made your own life (and that of your employer) much easier. These days, it can almost all be done on a computer, using filing software that does all the hard work for you. Yes, you may be required to keep hard files on occasion, but even that is being replaced by digital copies. Pretty soon, filing cabinets will be in a museum right next to buggy whips and PDAs.</p> <p><em>What common skills do you see becoming obsolete soon?</em></p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/paul-michael">Paul Michael</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/9-skills-that-will-be-obsolete-soon">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-14"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/15-modern-life-skills-everyone-should-master">15 Modern Life Skills Everyone Should Master</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/these-5-apps-can-fix-your-finances">These 5 Apps Can Fix Your Finances</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/10-back-to-school-iphone-apps">10 Back-to-School iPhone Apps</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/5-fitness-gadgets-actually-worth-the-money">5 Fitness Gadgets Actually Worth the Money</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/8-apps-that-actually-pay-you-to-shop">8 Apps That Actually Pay You to Shop</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> Lifestyle Productivity Technology apps Dating maps math networking obsolete skills parallel parking Wed, 12 Aug 2015 11:00:18 +0000 Paul Michael 1515687 at http://www.wisebread.com 11 Useful, Genius Math Tricks That Are Actually Easy http://www.wisebread.com/11-useful-genius-math-tricks-that-are-actually-easy <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/11-useful-genius-math-tricks-that-are-actually-easy" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/math-teacher-178494145-small.jpg" alt="math teacher" title="math teacher" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="140" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p>&quot;Pure mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas,&quot; said Albert Einstein. So learning some basic and impressive math must at least be the limericks of logical ideas.</p> <p>If you want to provide your math skills a major boost, here are 11 useful tricks that you will make you better at math (or at least fake it 'till you make it!), all of which have kick-butt real world applications.</p> <h2>1. Faster Percentage Calculation</h2> <p>Show off by being the one who doesn't bust out the smartphone to calculate the tip. The quickest way to calculate percentages is to multiply numbers first and worry about the two decimal places later. Remember that a &quot;percent&quot; means a fraction out of 100, which means move the decimal two digits to the left.</p> <ul> <li>20 percent of 70? 20 times 70 equals 1400, so the answer is 14.</li> <li>Notice how 70 percent of 20 is also 14.</li> <li>If you need to calculate the percentage of a number, such as 72 or 29, then round up and down to the nearest multiple (70 and 30 respectively) to get a quick estimate.</li> </ul> <p>Multiplying integers is always faster than multiplying decimals.</p> <h2>2. Easy Rules for Divisibility</h2> <p>If you need to be able to decide quickly if 408 slices of pie can be evenly split by 12 people, here are some useful shortcuts. These rules works for all numbers without fractions and decimals.</p> <ul> <li>Divisible by 2 if the number's last digit is divisible by 2 (e.g. 298).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Divisible by 3 if the sum of the digits of the number are divisible by 3 (501 is because 5 + 0 + 1 equals 6, which is divisible by 3).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Divisible by 4 if the last two digits of the number are divisible by 4 (2,340 because 40 is a multiple of 4).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Divisible by 5 if the last digit is 0 or 5 (1,505).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Divisible by 6 if the rules of divisibility for 2 and 3 work for that number (408).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Divisible by 9 if the sum of digits of the number are divisible by 9 (6,390 because 6 + 3 + 9 + 0 equals 18, which is divisible by 9).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Divisible by 12 if the rules of divisibility for 3 and 4 work for that number (e.g. 408).</li> </ul> <h2>3. Faster Square Roots</h2> <p>Everybody knows that the square root of 4 is 2, but what about the square root of 85?</p> <p>Give a quick estimate by:</p> <ol> <li>Finding the nearest square. In this case, the square root of 81 is 9.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Determining the next nearest square. In this case, the square root of 100 is 10.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>The square root of 85 is a value between 9 and 10. Since 85 is closer to 81, the actual value must be 9 point something.</li> </ol> <h2>4. The Rule of 72</h2> <p>Want to know how long it will take for your money to double at a certain interest rate? Skip the financial calculator and use the rule of 72 to estimate the effects of compound interest.</p> <ul> <li>Just divide the number 72 by your target interest rate, and you get the approximate number of years that it will take for your money to double.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>If you were to invest in a 0.9% CD, it would take about 80 years for your money to double.</li> </ul> <p>On the other hand, if you were to invest in a mutual fund with a 7% return, it would take your original funds about 10.28 years to double.</p> <h2>5. The Rule of 115</h2> <p>If double your money sounds too wimpy and you prefer to up the ante by tripling your money, then use the number 115 instead to estimate the number of years it will take your money to triple. For example, an investment at a 5% growth rate would take about 23 years to triple.</p> <h2>6. Figure Out the Hourly Rate</h2> <p>Sometimes to make an apples to apples comparisons between jobs you need to compare the hourly rate of each jobs. For example, if you are able to work the same amount of hours, which job pays better, one with an annual salary of $58,000 or one with a hourly rate of $31?</p> <p>Figure out the hourly rate of an annual salary by dropping the three zeros and dividing that number by 2. In this case, the hourly rate would be 58/2 = $29. Keeping all other things equal, the $31/hour gig pays better.</p> <h2>7. Advanced Finger Math</h2> <p>You fingers can do more than plain addition and subtraction. If you have problems remembering the multiplication table of 9, try this finger math trick:</p> <ol> <li>Open both of your hands, extending your fingers, in front of you.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>To multiply 9 by 5, fold down your fifth finger from the left. To multiply 9 by 6, fold down your sixth finger from the left, and on.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Get the answer to 9 by 5 by counting your fingers on either side of the bent finger and combining them: 4 and 5 makes 45 and 5 and 4 makes 54.</li> </ol> <p>Now you can quickly figure out the multiplication table of 9 all the way up to 9 times 10.</p> <h2>8. Fast Multiplication by 4</h2> <p>To multiply any number times 4 at lightning speeds: First double the number and then double it again. Let's use this shortcut with 1,223 times 4: double 1,223 is 2,446, and double 2,446 is 4,892.</p> <h2>9. Balanced Average Approach</h2> <p>Instead of using the average formula, you can use the balanced average approach. Think of an average as a target that all items in a list are aiming for and you are trying to balance them out to match that target. For example, let's say that you have 5 exams in your history class and you want to get at least a 92 out of 100. Here are your grades so far:</p> <ul> <li>First exam = 81</li> <li>Second exam = 98</li> <li>Third exam = 90</li> <li>Fourth exam = 93</li> </ul> <p>What grade would you need to get on the fifth exam to get a 92 average? Let's add up how much you exceeded or missed your target on every attempt: - 11 + 6 - 2 + 1 equals - 6. To balance your average you need to make up for those - 6 points by making +6 points on top of your target. You need to make 98 on your fifth exam to reach your target grade of 92. Better start studying!</p> <h2>10. Ballpark Fractions</h2> <p>Estimate fractions faster by using easy benchmarks, such as &frac14;, ⅓, &frac12;, and &frac34;. For example, <sup>30</sup>&frasl;<sub>50</sub> is close to <sup>30</sup>&frasl;<sub>60</sub>. Since <sup>30</sup>&frasl;<sub>60</sub> is &frac12; and has a bigger denominator than <sup>30</sup>&frasl;<sub>50</sub>, <sup>30</sup>&frasl;<sub>50</sub> must be a little bit bigger than 0.50. (The actual value is 0.60.)</p> <h2>11. The Always-3 Trick</h2> <p>Now here is a party trick in which you can pretend to be <a href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/6305216088/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&amp;camp=1789&amp;creative=390957&amp;creativeASIN=6305216088&amp;linkCode=as2&amp;tag=wisbre03-20&amp;linkId=JIF47K5TMKTP6ZHP">Will Hunting</a>.</p> <ul> <li>Ask somebody to pick a number.</li> <li>Tell them to double that number.</li> <li>Then, ask them to add 9.</li> <li>Subtract 3.</li> <li>Divide by 2.</li> <li>And finally, to subtract the original number.</li> </ul> <p>No matter whether you use 1, 10, 25, 70, or any other other number, the answer is always 3! Putting your fingers on the side of your head like X-Men's <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFomWOcHqbk">Professor Charles Xavier</a> is highly recommended for dramatic effect.</p> <p><em>What is your favorite math trick? Please share in comments!</em></p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/damian-davila">Damian Davila</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/11-useful-genius-math-tricks-that-are-actually-easy">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-1"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/financial-math-basics-you-need-to-know">Financial Math Basics You Need to Know</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/do-you-practice-math-when-you-leave-a-tip">Do You Practice Math When You Leave a Tip?</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/how-to-sell-your-hair-for-cash">How to Sell Your Hair for Cash</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/10-really-easy-ways-to-unclog-drains">10 Really Easy Ways to Unclog Drains</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/51-uses-for-coca-cola-the-ultimate-list">51 Uses for Coca-Cola – the Ultimate List</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> General Tips easy math math math tricks quick math Mon, 18 Aug 2014 13:00:03 +0000 Damian Davila 1185602 at http://www.wisebread.com Financial Math Basics You Need to Know http://www.wisebread.com/financial-math-basics-you-need-to-know <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/financial-math-basics-you-need-to-know" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/3084183512_77a91651b3_z.jpg" alt="calculator" title="calculator" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="167" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p>What kind of math skills do you need to manage your finances? Much of the time, addition and subtraction serve you well.</p> <p>There are times, though, that math specific to finance is useful. When you are facing a decision or contemplating how to improve your financial position, do the math. You'll often need to understand certain concepts and know how to do certain calculations like the ones I have included below.</p> <h3>Calculate Loan Payments</h3> <p>Before you think about borrowing money to go to college, enter into price negotiations on a car or house that you&rsquo;ll finance with a consumer or mortgage loan, or put your beach trip or flat screen television on your credit card, you should know what your monthly loan payment will be. (See also:&nbsp;<a href="http://www.wisebread.com/the-different-types-of-loans-a-primer">The Different Types of Loans: A Primer</a>)</p> <p>Your monthly obligation is not the only factor in making a decision (the real value of the car, house, college, etc. should play a role), but it&rsquo;s a critical one. Plus, you can more readily compare the impact of variables, such as a trade-in, higher down payment, scholarship, lower interest rate, longer loan term, etc. on your monthly payment.</p> <p>To calculate the loan payment, you will need the following information:</p> <ul> <li>Interest rate</li> <li>Loan term</li> <li>Loan amount</li> </ul> <p>Write a formula using the <a href="http://www.excelfunctions.net/Excel-Pmt-Function.html">PMT function in a spreadsheet</a>:</p> <p>=PMT (interest rate, number of payment periods based on the loan term, and -net present value or the current loan value)</p> <p>You can also use a <a href="http://www.financeformulas.net/Loan_Payment_Formula.html">math formula</a>, which can be expressed as:</p> <p>Payment = Interest Rate x Loan Value /(1 - POWER(1 + Interest Rate, -Number of Payment Periods))</p> <p>For example,</p> <ul> <li>A car loan with a 3% interest rate for 60 months on a loan balance of $30,000 has a monthly payment of $539.06.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>A 30-year mortgage of $200,000 with a 2% interest rate has monthly payments of $739.24.</li> </ul> <p>Occasionally, your actual loan payment won&rsquo;t equal the calculation's result. Factors that impact the payment include:</p> <ul> <li>Service fees added to your monthly charges</li> <li>Insurance and property taxes included in your monthly house payment</li> <li>Mortgage points, sales taxes, etc. that are added (aka capitalized) to your loan balance</li> </ul> <p>Comparing expected and actual payments can help uncover any misunderstandings or discrepancies.</p> <h3>Understand Why Certain Loans Never Go Away</h3> <p>You may be surprised to see a loan balance grow rather than shrink with regular payments. Certain loan structures make it likely that the balance won't disappear easily.</p> <p>Common situations in which the loan balance grows or stays the same:</p> <ul> <li>You have an interest-only mortgage loan that allows you to pay only interest on the loan for a designated period of time.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Student loan payments are deferred but still incur interest charges, which are added to the loan balance during the deferral period.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>You take a 0% financing offer but don't pay the balance in full before a certain time frame (often 18 months) so that the deferred interest is added to the account balance.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Your credit card company gives you a payment holiday; however, interest doesn&rsquo;t take a holiday and is added to your account balance if you skip a payment.<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>You add new purchases to revolving loans, like credit card loans and home equity lines, even as you make regular payments.</li> </ul> <p>If the balance stays the same or grows, then the loan is not fully amortizing. Create your own schedule in a spreadsheet to see how the loan should shrink and disappear; then compare those numbers with what&rsquo;s really happening.</p> <p>Start with this information:</p> <ul> <li>Loan balance</li> <li>Interest rate</li> <li>Term (number of months)</li> <li>Payment</li> </ul> <p>Then design the spreadsheet in this way (I have used &quot;|&quot; to indicate separation of cells in the spreadsheet):</p> <p>Month 1 | Payment | Interest (Original Loan Balance x Interest Rate/12) | Principal Paid (Payment - Interest) | Balance (Original Loan Balance - Principal Paid)</p> <p>Month 2 | Payment | Interest (Previous Month&rsquo;s Balance x Interest Rate/12) | Principal Paid (Payment - Interest) | Balance (Previous Month&rsquo;s Balance - Principal Paid)</p> <p>&hellip; and so on. For a spreadsheet example, see this <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/how-to-build-your-own-amortization-schedule-0">DIY guide</a>. Note that a fixed-rate, fully amortizing loan should reach a $0 balance (or close to zero) in the last month of the term.</p> <h3>Figure Percentages</h3> <p>Percentages pay a big role in making everyday financial decisions, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Determining the dollar value of a sales discount or sales-tax holiday<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Calculating tips<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Figuring out how much of your paycheck will go to your 401(k) or a charity like the United Way<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Determining what percentage of your income goes to your church (or setting a dollar amount based on 10% giving)<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Figuring out how much a raise expressed in percentages will increase your gross income in dollars</li> </ul> <p>Start with the base amount (the list price of an item or your gross income, for example) and multiply by the percentage (translate the percentage into a decimal, such as 10% = .10, 3% = .03, 25% = .25). The result is the dollar amount of the sales discount, tip, contribution to your 401(k) or charitable organization, or raise.</p> <p>Then, if desired, take the next step in your calculations. Figure out the exact price of the item. For example, a 20% discount on a base price of $100 will save $20, but what is the actual cost of the item? It&rsquo;s $80 ($100-$20). Or, you may want to determine how much you will earn next year if you get a 4% raise on a base pay of $52,000. You'll make $2,080 more and your annual base will be $54,080.</p> <h3>See Compound Interest in Action</h3> <p>You have probably heard that compound interest is important to your future wealth. The reason is twofold:</p> <ol> <li>Exponential growth of investment values happens over many years, not immediately (which is why investing as a young adult is so strongly encouraged).<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Even small annual differences in investment growth can have significant impact over many years (which is why people are willing to take risks to earn higher returns).</li> </ol> <p>You can use <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/how-to-calculate-future-value-and-why-it-matters">future value (@FV) calculations</a> to see the big-picture impact of changes in interest rates, investment contributions, and number of years invested on wealth building. But to bring the meaning of this concept into greater focus, design a spreadsheet to show sequential, year-by-year growth. That way, you can see clearly that as the base amount increases, investment growth accelerates.</p> <p>For example, consider investing $10,000 for 30 years and consistently garnering 15% return (an aggressive goal that I am using to illustrate the power of compounding). In the first year, the value moves from $10,000 to $11,500. But by year 15, annual dollar growth is now more than $10,000. Then, at year 30, the account value increases by $86,000 to more than $660,000.</p> <p>Year 1: $11,500 (end of year, $10,000 + $10,000 x 15% = $11,500)</p> <p>Year 2: $13,225</p> <p>Year 3: $15,209</p> <p>Year 4: $17,490</p> <p>Year 5: $20,114<br /> &hellip;</p> <p>Year 15: $81,371</p> <p>&hellip;</p> <p>Year 30: $662,118</p> <p>Note that if you stopped reinvesting after 20 years, then you&rsquo;d have $163,665 (instead of $662,118 that requires 30 years to reach). If you experienced 12% growth annually, then you would have just a tad under $300,000 in 30 years (not $662,118 that requires 15% growth). These compounding calculations illustrate that seemingly small differences (20 years vs. 30 years or 12% vs. 15%) can make a big difference over time.</p> <h3>Apply the Time Value of Money to Real-Life Situations</h3> <p>One of the basic concepts of personal finance is the time value of money. A meaningful description comes from <a href="http://www.investorglossary.com/time-value-of-money.htm">Investor Glossary</a>:</p> <blockquote><p>Time value of money is the financial concept that deals with equating the future value of money or an investment with its present value. Time value of money explains how interest rates and time affect the value of money.</p> </blockquote> <p>Understanding time value (and specifically knowing how to calculate future value and present value) is useful in comparing options. You may want to compare the future values of two different investment scenarios or compare the present value of a series of annual payments to a lump-sum deal. Such real-life situations may include:</p> <ul> <li>Deciding between two investment options requiring different annual investment amounts and different interest rates<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Choosing a lump sum now vs. annual income for a severance package<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Comparing the value of a government pension vs. 401(k)<br /> &nbsp;</li> <li>Choosing between a Traditional IRA and Roth IRA</li> </ul> <p>The future value function can help you to project the value of two investment options. You can compare the difference between investing $2,000 for 10 years at 5% vs. investing $5,000 for 5 years at 4% as =FV(5%,10,-2000) vs. =FV(4%,5,-5000), or $25,156 vs. $27,082.</p> <p>For scenarios in which you are comparing an immediate one-time payment with a series of payments to be received over time, use a <a href="http://www.zenwealth.com/BusinessFinanceOnline/TVM/PresentValue.html">present-value calculation</a>. You'll need the following information:</p> <ul> <li>Annual interest rate or expected growth rate</li> <li>Number of periods that you will receive payments</li> <li>Amount of each payment</li> </ul> <p>For example, if you were given a choice between getting a lump-sum payment now of $75,000 vs. receiving $20,000 per year for five years (and earning 8% each year), you could figure out the present worth of the payment streams using this formula: =PV(8%,5,-20000) = $79,854 and then compare to the present value of the lump-sum amount ($75,000) to make your choice.</p> <p>Applying the time value of money allows you to take dissimilar options (apples to oranges) and convert them to like comparisons (apples to apples, present value to present value, and future value to future value).</p> <h3>Figure Out Your Financial Position</h3> <p>Addition and subtraction can be just as valuable as spreadsheet functions. You can use these basic tools to do the following:</p> <ol> <li>Figure out if you are spending less than you earn</li> <li>Calculate your net worth</li> </ol> <p>To determine if you are spending less than you earn, subtract expenses from take-home income. Count monthly bills (electricity, rent or mortgage, etc.), annual bills (property taxes and insurance), and other costs that may occur on a less regular schedule (groceries, gas, and vacations). If there is money left over after you pay taxes and make investments, then you are establishing a strong financial foundation.</p> <p>Basic math also allows you to calculate your <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/what-is-your-net-worth">net worth</a>. Add up the value of your assets (bank balances, balance of retirement accounts, home equity, etc.) and subtract your liabilities (mortgages, student loans, etc.) to determine your overall financial position.</p> <p>Looking at these numbers periodically can tell you how well you are applying financial knowledge to building wealth.</p> <p><em>How have you applied financial math basics to making decisions? Share in the comments. </em></p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/julie-rains">Julie Rains</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/financial-math-basics-you-need-to-know">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-1"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/why-the-time-value-of-money-matters-and-10-ways-it-affects-you">Why the Time Value of Money Matters, and 10 Ways It Affects You</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/the-best-and-worst-places-to-stash-cash-in-your-home">The Best and Worst Places to Stash Cash in Your Home</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/11-useful-genius-math-tricks-that-are-actually-easy">11 Useful, Genius Math Tricks That Are Actually Easy</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/weird-money-facts-10-things-you-didnt-know-about-counterfeit-money">Weird Money Facts: 10 Things You Didn&#039;t Know About Counterfeit Money</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/chinese-money-habits-how-my-culture-influences-my-attitudes-toward-money">Chinese Money Habits - How My Culture Influences My Attitudes Toward Money</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> Personal Finance General Tips financial calculations future value loan payments math present value Thu, 16 Aug 2012 10:36:42 +0000 Julie Rains 949484 at http://www.wisebread.com Do You Practice Math When You Leave a Tip? http://www.wisebread.com/do-you-practice-math-when-you-leave-a-tip <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/do-you-practice-math-when-you-leave-a-tip" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/iStock_000001217349XSmall.jpg" alt="" title="" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="166" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p><strong>Is it just me, or does everyone have their own special way of leaving a tip?</strong></p> <p>I was taught to write a rounded dollar figure as the total, and cross out the tip line because the amount becomes trivial. But what if the servers end up having to make the calculation by hand every time a customer did this? It's fairly easy for me to do the simple math once, but it gets pretty cumbersome when there are one hundred receipts to calculate at the end of a day's shift. Have servers been cussing me for decades? How do you write your tip? And have you seen some weird ways to calculate a tip? I know I have. Off the top of my head, I can think of four that deserves a mention.</p> <h3>The Whole Dollar Tipper</h3> <p>The tipper who only knows about whole numbers, he always rounds the amount to the nearest dollar. It certainly makes it easy for the mathematically challenge (actually, it's probably the only way he can ever leave a tip), but there's also the advantage of time for the tipper. Oh and don't forget, it saves the server time too because they can very easily tell what percentage you tipped him as soon as he sneaks a peak at your receipt. (Never seen this? Don't worry, because they always do it <em>after</em> you turn your head to leave.</p> <h3>The Clean Tipper</h3> <p>These people do what I do. They write a total amount that's rounded and either cross out the tip amount or fill in the difference. It makes expenses easier to add up, until they realize that every other expense they need to add up end in the nearest penny.</p> <h3>The No Tipper</h3> <p>A big fat $0 is what they give. He/she may not do it every time, but there's always an excuse for it. Oh the service is bad, take outs don't require tips, the owner takes them all anyway, blah blah blah. Stop complaining. See these people and shoot them please.</p> <h3>The Geek Tipper</h3> <p>Lastly, and surprisingly, the geek tipper is very popular in debt...I mean US of A. I don't get it, but many people simply try to figure out, fairly accurately I might add, the right percentage and then put that amount in the space labeled tip amount. Then, using what was learned in grade school, they scribble all the numbers on the receipt and try to add all the dollars and cents. It's fine most of the time. After all, it's a free country and who am I to judge. But once in a while, the addition is wrong! I mean, what is the server suppose to do now? Use the tip amount, use the total amount or forfeit the tip all together?</p> <h3>Your Turn to Share</h3> <p>So, what kind of a tipper are you? I don't mean how much you pay, but rather, how do you write your tip amount? And do waiters always deserve a tip?.</p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/david-ning">David Ning</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/do-you-practice-math-when-you-leave-a-tip">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-2"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/how-water-can-save-you-977-a-year">How Water Can Save You $977 a Year</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/8-spectacular-uses-for-that-lone-can-of-fruit">8 Spectacular Uses for that Lone Can of Fruit</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/in-times-like-these-separate-the-want-from-the-need">In times like these, separate the want from the need.</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/the-7-best-cities-for-frugal-foodies">The 7 Best Cities for Frugal Foodies</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/chinese-proverbs-about-money-and-personal-finance">Chinese Proverbs About Money and Personal Finance</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> Entertainment Food and Drink General Tips math money restaurants tips waiters Tue, 01 Jun 2010 12:00:08 +0000 David Ning 107472 at http://www.wisebread.com Where on Earth did the $1 bill go? http://www.wisebread.com/where-on-earth-did-the-1-bill-go <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/where-on-earth-did-the-1-bill-go" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/1407846907_7a2d4c2423.jpg" alt="fuzzy math" title="fuzzy math" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="353" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p>I&#39;d like to start by saying I&#39;m awful at math. I mean, really bad. So it will come as no surprise to learn that I just scratched my bald head in wonder when I was told the following story. It may be one you&#39;ve heard before, or a variation of something that&#39;s really old, but I&#39;ll tell it anyway. And then maybe one smart WB reader can show me how this puzzle actually is solved, because I&#39;m clueless.</p> <p>The story starts with three guys (although it could have been three girls, hey, I&#39;m not being sexist here). They&#39;re all out on the town and get quite merry in a local bar. Instead of attempting to drive (bad idea guys) or paying for a pricey cab, they decide to share a cheap hotel room and split the bill. </p> <p>The price for the room, they are told by the receptionist, is $30 for one night. No problem for our guys, they each cough up $10 and go sleep off the booze. In the morning, the receptionist gets the bill and realizes the price for the room is actually only $25. As this guy is as bad at math as I am, he decided to give each guy $1 back and pocket the remaining $2 cash.</p> <p>Here&#39;s where my head hurts.</p> <p>The guys originally paid $10 each for the room.</p> <p>They get $1 back each, meaning they paid $9 each for the room.</p> <p>And the receptionist has $2.</p> <p>$9 x 3 = $27 </p> <p>Add the $2 from the receptionist.</p> <p>$27 + $2 = $29</p> <p>But they originally paid $30. So, where on Earth did the $1 bill go? Help!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/paul-michael">Paul Michael</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/where-on-earth-did-the-1-bill-go">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-2"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/turn-1-into-100-in-about-2-minutes">Turn $1 into $100 in about 2 minutes.</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/get-your-pc-to-give-you-coffee-bacon-or-even-an-orgasm">Get your PC to give you coffee, bacon or even an orgasm.</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/mind-over-math-believing-it-makes-it-so">Mind Over Math - Believing It Makes It So</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/14-useful-items-hotels-usually-provide-for-free">14 Useful Items Hotels Usually Provide for Free</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/8-cheap-ways-to-lower-your-blood-sugar">13 Natural and Easy Ways to Lower Your Blood Sugar</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> Life Hacks enigma hotel math puzzle story trick unusual Sun, 02 Dec 2007 05:48:23 +0000 Paul Michael 1446 at http://www.wisebread.com Mind Over Math - Believing It Makes It So http://www.wisebread.com/mind-over-math-believing-it-makes-it-so <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/mind-over-math-believing-it-makes-it-so" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/iStock_000073710369_Large.jpg" alt="young students school" title="young students school" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="140" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p>There are many, many web sites that are devoted to helping you find actvities for your kids that boost their brain power. Turns out that there is another great way to help your kids improve their grades and keep their brains active and growing &mdash; it's simply matter of mind over matter.</p> <p>From <a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7406521">NPR.org</a>:</p> <p class="blockquote">A new study in the scientific journal <em>Child Development</em> shows that if you teach students that their intelligence can grow and increase, they do better in school.... &quot;Some students start thinking of their intelligence as something fixed, as carved in stone,&quot; Dweck says. &quot;They worry about, 'Do I have enough? Don't I have enough?'&quot; Dweck calls this a &quot;fixed mindset&quot; of intelligence. &quot;Other children think intelligence is something you can develop your whole life,&quot; she says. &quot;You can learn. You can stretch. You can keep mastering new things.&quot;</p> <p>A scientific study tracked 7th grade students whose math grades were suffering. One group of students was provided with a mini-neuroscience class, and taught that intelligence is not a fixed thing, but rather something that can grow and develop over time. The other group were simply given lessons on how to &quot;study well.&quot;</p> <p>The students who believed that &quot;the brain actually forms new connections every time you learn something new, and that over time, this makes you smarter&quot; showed a marked improvement in their math skills.</p> <p class="blockquote">&quot;If you think about a child who's coping with an especially challenging task, I don't think there's anything better in the world than that child hearing from a parent or from a teacher the words, 'You'll get there.' And that, I think, is the spirit of what this is about.&quot;</p> <p>To think, all these parents spending hundreds of dollars on Baby Einstein videos to show to tiny toddlers, and all they had to do was repeat &quot;You'll get smarter, little buddy. You'll get smarter every day.&quot;</p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/andrea-karim">Andrea Karim</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/mind-over-math-believing-it-makes-it-so">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-3"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/10-time-management-skills-that-will-help-your-kid-win-at-school">10 Time-Management Skills That Will Help Your Kid Win at School</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/dont-go-to-college-to-learn">Don&#039;t Go to College to Learn</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/4-bad-money-habits-youre-teaching-your-kids">4 Bad Money Habits You&#039;re Teaching Your Kids</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/6-fun-games-that-teach-your-kids-about-money">6 Fun Games That Teach Your Kids About Money</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/5-life-mistakes-you-need-to-stop-making-by-30">5 Life Mistakes You Need to Stop Making by 30</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> Life Hacks Baby Einstein children education grades intelligence kids learning math neuroscience school science smart Thu, 15 Feb 2007 22:53:58 +0000 Andrea Karim 279 at http://www.wisebread.com 15 million British shoppers with math skills of fifth graders get government help http://www.wisebread.com/15-million-british-shoppers-with-math-skills-of-fifth-graders-get-government-help <div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-blog-image"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <a href="/15-million-british-shoppers-with-math-skills-of-fifth-graders-get-government-help" class="imagecache imagecache-250w imagecache-linked imagecache-250w_linked"><img src="http://wisebread.killeracesmedia.netdna-cdn.com/files/fruganomics/imagecache/250w/blog-images/iStock_000059334186_Large.jpg" alt="confused woman shopping" title="confused woman shopping" class="imagecache imagecache-250w" width="250" height="140" /></a> </div> </div> </div> <p>14.9 million adults in England <a href="http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/news/1090643.bargains_that_fail_to_add_up/">do not have the math skills</a> of an 11-year-old.</p> <p>During this holiday shopping season, these poor souls will have trouble figuring out simple calculations for &quot;20% off&quot; or &quot;buy one, get one half off,&rdquo; according to the Department for Education and Skills (DfES).</p> <p>Help is at hand. The DfES believes British shoppers are so helpless that it will dispatch teams of government &ldquo;helpers&rdquo; to roam the malls during this shopping season, where they will distribute over 200,000 special sales calculators to assist bargain hunters.&nbsp;According to the DfES Minister, Phil Hope: &quot;We all use numbers every day, but millions struggle to do the kind of basic sums which are so essential to our lives at work and at home.&quot;</p> <p>&quot;After trying to work out that 60% off discount or multi-purchase deals, people may well be thinking about improving their skills in the New Year, and that's why the Get On campaign is out on the streets today. Everyone enjoys the hunt for a bargain, but people in Sheffield and York might not realise that they can brush up their math or reading and writing &mdash; locally, and for free!</p> <p>Gwyneth Paltrow recently caught a lot of <a href="http://www.wwtdd.com/post.phtml?pk=1645" target="_blank">flak</a> in the States for saying that &quot;I love the English way, which is not as capitalistic as it is in America. People don't talk about work and money; they talk about interesting things at dinner parties.&quot;</p> <p>No wonder they don't talk about money. If I only had a fifth-grade understanding of math, I would avoid talking about money as well. Now I think about it, Hermione was the only one who took Arithmancy at Hogwarts.</p> <hr width="100%" size="2" /> <p>Edited to add: I just realized I <strike>came off</strike> was acting like a jackass in this post. I partially blame our fellow Wise Bread blogger Andrea, whose glowing review of Tim Hartford and his &quot;lovely British accent&quot; inspired some of the snarkiness of this post.</p> <p>Making fun of people for their lack of math skills is no better than making fun of the illiterate (and probably more dangerous too, since the mathematically challenged can can still read my posts). So a heartfelt apology to all who were offended. We're here to help consumers, not to mock them.</p> <p>And to show my good faith, let me give our British friends a piece of advice: Go out and grab these calculators! They are certain to become precious collector's items you can <a href="/the-business-of-ebay" target="_blank">sell on eBay</a>. They may also mark the triumph of machine over man, and become relics in future shrines build to honor our robot overlords; but I think the ebay scenario is more likely.</p> <br /><div id="custom_wisebread_footer"><div id="rss_tagline">This article is from <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/will-chen">Will Chen</a> of <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/15-million-british-shoppers-with-math-skills-of-fifth-graders-get-government-help">Wise Bread</a>, an award-winning personal finance and <a href="http://www.wisebread.com/credit-cards">credit card comparison</a> website. Read more great articles from Wise Bread:</div><div class="view view-similarterms view-id-similarterms view-display-id-block_2 view-dom-id-4"> <div class="view-content"> <div class="item-list"> <ul> <li class="views-row views-row-1 views-row-odd views-row-first"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/easy-ways-to-save-on-7-everyday-buys">Easy Ways to Save on 7 Everyday Buys</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-2 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/why-do-we-feel-buyer-s-remorse-anyway">Why Do We Feel Buyer’s Remorse, Anyway?</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-3 views-row-odd"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/the-5-best-foot-creams">The 5 Best Foot Creams</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-4 views-row-even"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/these-8-everyday-buys-will-be-cheaper-this-summer">These 8 Everyday Buys Will Be Cheaper This Summer</a></span> </div> </li> <li class="views-row views-row-5 views-row-odd views-row-last"> <div class="views-field-title"> <span class="field-content"><a href="http://www.wisebread.com/the-best-5-credit-cards-for-groceries">The 5 Best Credit Cards for Groceries</a></span> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/></br> Shopping british calculators math shoppers Wed, 27 Dec 2006 13:39:05 +0000 Will Chen 115 at http://www.wisebread.com