Power9: 9 Habits of the World's Healthiest People

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The United States is facing a health crisis of unprecedented proportions: Two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese. Diabetes and heart disease rates are on the rise. For the first time in living history, the life expectancy of America’s children is less than that of their parents.

In other parts of the world, however, people are living longer, healthier lives. In certain areas known as Blue Zones, people tend to live well into their 90s and beyond while remaining mentally and physically vibrant. It’s no coincidence that people in these regions share several lifestyle traits.

The Blue Zones

  1. Sardinia, Italy: a mountain village where researchers encountered a 102-year-old man who hikes at least 6 miles a day.
  2. Okinawa, Japan: home to some of the world’s longest-lived people.
  3. Loma Linda, California: where a group of Seventh Day Adventists commonly live to 100 years old and enjoy more healthy years of life than the rest of the United States.
  4. Icaria, Greece: a tiny island with 20 percent lower rates of cancer, 50 percent lower rates of heart disease, and almost no dementia.
  5. Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica: where residents enjoy lower levels of obesity and longer lives than the rest of Costa Rica.

Dan Buettner, explorer and writer for National Geographic, has worked with longevity researchers to identify the habits that allow Blue Zone inhabitants to reach the age of 100 at ten times greater rates than most of the United States, while suffering a mere fraction the rate of heart disease and cancer as the rest of the world.

The key to living longer, fuller lives, says Buettner, is to create an environment of health. Science has determined that less than 25% of a person’s lifespan is determined by genes. The rest can be influenced by lifestyle factors. 

Healthy Lifestyle Habits

Buettner and his team of researchers have identified nine lifestyle factors common among Blue Zone inhabitants, all of which are associated with an extra 3-6 years of quality life. The secret to vitality and longevity is incorporating these habits into your daily life. Adopting all nine of these habits — known as the Power9 — is not necessary to experience the benefits of increased health and longevity; according to Buettner, practicing just six of the Power9 will deliver 90% of the benefits. His book, The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who’ve Lived the Longest, provides practical guidelines for setting up your home, your social life, and your work place to help add more quality years to your life.

Surprisingly, only one of the Power9 deals with exercise, and a full third involve social factors. In fact, says Buettner, the single most important thing you can do is extend your life is to build your own “Right Tribe.” The world’s longest-lived people were either born into or choose to associate with the right people — those who provide emotional support and the motivation to engage in healthy activities. Research shows that if you surround yourself with people who are active and eat healthy foods, you are more likely to adopt these habits yourself.

The Power9

1. Move naturally

Find ways to move mindlessly and adopt a lifestyle that makes moving unavoidable. In many Blue Zones, walking is the main mode of transportation. People also engage in some sort of moderate daily activity such as gardening, walking, or playing with their children. Buettner believes that many Americans exercise too hard; our bodies were not made to withstand years of heavy pounding and high-intensity physical activity. Regular, low-intensity activity — doing something light every day — may be more beneficial. Focus on activities you enjoy — even something as seemingly simple as a daily walk can provide health benefits.

2. Know your purpose in life

Having a meaningful reason to get out of bed in the morning can help reduce stress and ward off disease. Studies show that people who retire early often see a decline in their health and even experience higher mortality rates than those who continue to work. If you enjoy your job, keep working as long as possible. Volunteer work and community service can also help provide a sense of purpose.

3. Downshift

People in Blue Zones typically have less stress in their lives. Look for ways to simplify your life: slow down, get plenty of rest, and take vacations. Try to punctuate your day with periods of calm, whether that means meditating, taking a relaxing bath, or carving out some time for yourself to engage in a hobby.

4. Follow the 80% Rule

As Americans, we’re used to eating until we’re full, but allowing yourself to feel hunger can actually be beneficial. A study involving mice revealed that the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin may help fight stress and depression. People in Blue Zones typically stop eating when they are 80% full. Buettner’s book and the Blue Zone web site provide advice on adopting healthier eating habits.

5. Eat a plant-based diet

People in Blue Zones don’t diet; they eat wisely. Blue Zone diets consist of large amounts of locally grown vegetables and less protein than the average American diet. Limit processed foods, meats, fats, and sweets as much as possible. Also drink plenty of fresh water and herbal teas. In Icaria, residents drink high levels of herbal teas that act as diuretics, lower blood pressure, and prevent heart disease.

6. Drink red wine

Red wine is high in powerful antioxidants that can help fight cancer, reduce inflammation, and lower cholesterol. In Sardinia, researchers found a red wine with the world’s highest-known levels of antioxidants. Drink red wine consistently and in moderation — a glass or two a day is recommended.

7. Belong to a healthy social network

Having a strong and supportive social system is key to reducing stress and living a healthy life. There is a biological link between social connection and how well our bodies function. Fifteen years ago, the average American had three good friends; that number is now down to two. Our increasingly wired society and busy lifestyles have made us more isolated, which can shave years off our lives. Make an effort to spend time with friends and nurture a face-to-face network instead of just connecting with people online. Proactively build friendships with people who practice healthy habits. Participating in social exercise groups or volunteering are great ways to meet healthy, like-minded individuals.

8. Have a belief system

Having some sort of faith system or spiritual practice has been shown to have health benefits. Participating in a belief system doesn’t have to mean organized religion: Okinawans believe in ancestral worship; yoga and meditation are also forms of non-religious spiritual practices. “People who feel their life is part of a larger plan and are guided by their spiritual values have stronger immune systems, lower blood pressure, a lower risk of heart attack and cancer, and heal faster and live longer,” says Harold G. Koenig, M.D., professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center.

9. Put your family first

People in Blue Zones make family a priority and nurture supportive relationships with their loved ones. Studies have shown that the average working American parent spends just 19 minutes a day engaged in childcare. As you work on simplifying your routine, look for new, beneficial activities you can do with your children and extended family members. Complete a craft project together, get the family together for a bike ride, or involve the children in making dinner and choosing healthy foods for the family.

For more information, visit the Blue Zones web site, which features a Vitality Compass for gauging your current state of health and life expectancy.

Additional Resources

The Island Where People Live Longer
Find Purpose, Live Longer

This is a post by Karen Eisenbraun from our sister blog, Healthy Theory. Visit Healthy Theory for more health tips and news.


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Andrea Karim's picture

It's funny - I used to drink a glass or two of red wine per night, and when my doctor asked how much I drank and I told her, she expressed concern that I was a borderline alcoholic. Moral? Don't tell your American doctor about the red wine you consume, I guess. :)

Guest's picture

Red grape juice contains the same anti-oxidants as red wine. I still enjoy an occasional glass of wine, but I don't feel obliged to drink wine for my health.

Andrea Karim's picture

Red grape juice also contains a great deal more simple sugar than red wine does - fine for the average person, perhaps, but harder for diabetics like me. Alcohol has really stopped agreeing with me as of late, so I've cut back significantly; it's just funny to me that what is considered the norm in so many places is considered a problem here in the US.

Guest's picture

I lived in Korea for a year - and while it may not be a blue zone region, people there tend to live to a ripe old age... I was very healthy there because of a few things that you include on this list: (1) fewer processed foods to choose from - more vegetables, fish, in the diet; (2) I walked everywhere; (3) moderate alcohol intake (when averaged out ;) ).  Also a magical dish called "samgyetang" - ginseng chicken soup probably extended my lifespan about five years!

Guest's picture

Pretty good list. Especially #4 and #5. Most people in the affluent countries, eat far too much cooked, processed, devitalized, and chemically laden food. Their bodies are starved for nutrition including trace minerals. Their brain senses this lack of nutrition as a signal that more nutrition is needed. People interpret this as hunger and eat more of the same garbage to satisfy their false appetite. It is a viscious circle, and eventually significant weight is gained, and disease symptoms begin due to the lack of nutrition, and the toxic load the body must try to deal with. A plant based diet is best for our own health and that of the planet. But, just eating less, of whatever diet you consume, is a step in the right direction.

Guest's picture

I'm not sure about the physical health aspect of drinking red wine every night but for me at least, the benefit of drinking just one glass of a good red wine at the end of a very hard/long day is immense as it immediately chills me out and lets me reflect and that is fantastic for my mental health well being.

Guest's picture

following that 80% rule is really helpful info and i will try it out and see if it will help make me healthier.


Guest's picture

I would say #9 "Put your family first" should be on the first place.
If you are surrounded by loving people who care about you and give you a lot of positive emotions every day - that's something to live for. Happy people live longer.
Everything else like healthy diet, exercise etc. comes second, but very important as well.
Great article! Thanks for posting!

Guest's picture

I really enjoyed this post! I think we all try to be far too strong and independent nowadays, and that relying on other people for emotional support is looked down on in our society as something weak people do. The truth is, we're social animals by nature, and we need strong relationships with others such as family and friends to live a healthy, fulfilling life.

Guest's picture

Sorry but saying that red wine is good for you is wishful thinking.